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形容词、副词及其比较等级

2020-12-06 22:16 AtmosphereMao

形容词、副词及其比较等级

形容词、副词及其比较等级


形容词

什么是形容词

用来修饰名词、代词的一类词,表示名词、代词的性质和特征

  • This is an interesting story.
  • The dog is clever.

形容词的功能

  1. 定语

    • This is an interesting book.
  2. 表语

    • This book is interesting.
  3. 补语

    • We find this book interesting.

形容词作定语

形容词作前置定语

  1. 单个形容词:一般放在所修饰的名词之前

    • 一个漂亮的女孩 a beautiful girl
    • 一只可爱的狗 a cute dog
    • 一个干净的房间 a clean room
  2. 多个形容词修饰一个名词的排列口诀:

    • 限,美小圆旧黄,法国木书房
      • 限定词:冠词、数词、物主代词、指示代词、不定代词
        • 前位限定词(只能出现在某些中位限定词之前)
          1. all, both , half
          2. 倍数词 double, twice, three times
          3. 分数词 one-third, one-fifth one-third the time
          4. such, what
        • 中位限定词(在名词中心词之前只能出现一个这样的词)
          1. 定冠词、不定冠词/ this / that / these / those / my / your / Merry's / my friend's / some / any / every / each / no
        • 后位限定词(接在前位限定词或中位限定词后面)
          1. 基数词 my three children
          2. 序数词 the first day, the last day(一般序数词,last, next, past, another, additional, further)
          3. 封闭类数量词 few people
          4. 开放类数量词 a large number of people
      • 美:美丑好坏,强壮
      • 小:尺寸大小(big,little)
      • 圆:形状
      • 旧:物(新旧) / 人(年龄 younge/old)
      • 黄:颜色
      • 法国:国家
      • 木:材质
      • 书:用途
      • 房:名词
      • 一个黑色新钢笔 a new black pen
      • 这座古老的中式石桥 the old Chinese stone bridge

形容词作后置定语

作后置定语(五种情况)

  1. 通常以a-开头的adj(表语adj),修饰名词后置,不用于名词前。

    • alike(相像的), alone(独自的), alive(活着的), alseep(睡着的), awake(醒着的)
    • eg: 一个睡着的婴儿 a baby asleep
    • eg: 一个活着的男人 a man alive
  2. 某些以-able和-ible结尾的adj常作后置定语

    • available, imaginable(可想像的), possible(可能的), visible(可看见的)

考点:available常作后置定语

  • 指物:可获得的;可购得的;可找到的;可使用的
  • 指人:有空的
  • eg
    • Do you have a room available?
    • She will be available this afternoon.
  1. adj修饰复合不定代词,应后置

    • 前部分:some-, any-, every-, no-
    • 后部分:-body, -one, -thing
    • 结合情况(不定代词):somebody, something, everyone...
    • eg: There is something interesting in the newspaper.
  2. present, absent常作后置定语

    • present作“出席的,到场的”之意(修饰人),不用于名词前(后置定语);(还有种含义是“目前的,当前的”(修饰物),当词意是该含义时则不需要后置)
    • absent作“缺席的,不在的”之意,不用于名词前(后置定语)
    • eg:
      • All the students present can get a book tody
      • All the students absent won't get the book.
  3. 长、宽、高、深及年龄,莫忘定语如何放(后置定语)

    • eg
      • The river is about 200 meters long and 10 meters wide.
      • I am 20 years old.
      • Mount Qomolangma is 8844.43 meters high.
      • The Yellow River is about 2.5 meters deep.

由分词转化而来的形容词

过去分词(-ed)转化而来的adj:用来修饰人 (感到...的)

现在分区(-ing)转化而来的adj:用来修饰物 (令人...的)

巧记:人-d物-ing

eg

  1. This is an interesting book.
  2. He is interested in this book.
  • excite 使兴奋

    • excited:感到兴奋的
    • exciting:令人兴奋的
  • interest 使感兴趣

    • interested:感到有趣的
    • interesting:有趣的
  • surprise 使惊奇

    • surprised:感到惊奇的
    • surprising:令人惊奇的
  • disappoint 使失望

    • disappointed:感到失望的
    • disappointing:令人失望的
  • discourage 使灰心,使泄气

    • discouraged:感到气馁的
    • discouraging:令人泄气的
  • annoy 使恼怒

    • annoyed:感到恼怒的
    • annoying:令人恼怒的
  • confuse 使困惑

    • confused:感到困惑的
    • confusing:令人困惑的
  • please 使愉快

    • pleased:感到高兴的
    • pleasing:令人愉快的
  • bore 使厌烦

    • bored:厌倦的
    • boring:令人厌倦的
  • embarrass 使尴尬

    • embarrassed:感到尴尬的
    • embarrassing:令人尴尬的

固定搭配:be + adj + 介词 + 宾语

  1. be + adj + about + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be worried about 对...担心
      • be anxious about 对...焦虑
      • be concerned about 对...关心
      • be particular about 对...挑剔
    • She is always particular about her boyfriend.
  2. be + adj + at + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be good at 擅长
      • be amazed at 对...吃惊
      • be disgusted at 对...厌恶
      • be surprised at 对...吃惊
    • They were amazed at what their mother did.
  3. be + adj + for + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be responsible for 对...负责
      • be famous for 以...闻名
    • The writer is famous for his stories.
    • Everyone should be responsible for his work.
  4. be + adj + in + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be interested in 对...感兴趣
      • be absorbed in 专心于
      • be involved in 卷入,涉及到
    • We should be abosrbed in our study.
    • Mary was involved in an accident.
  5. be + adj + of + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be ashamed of 对...羞愧
      • be capable of 有能力 (be capable of doing sth = be able to do sth 有能力做某事)
      • be fond of 喜爱
      • be proud of 骄傲
      • be worthy of 值得
  6. be + adj + to + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be sensitive to 对...敏感
      • be devoted to 致力于
      • be similar to 与...相似
      • be superior to 优于
      • be inferior to 劣于
      • be addicted to 沉迷于
  7. be + adj + with + 宾语

    • eg:
      • be popular with 受...欢迎
      • be satisified with 对...满意
      • A be familiar with B.(with前后) = B be familiar to A.(to后前) (A对B熟悉)

固定搭配:形容词词义辨析

考点

  1. 形近词词义辨析
  2. 近义词词义辨析

形近词词义辨析

  • respective, respectable, respected, respectful, respecting

    • respect (v) 尊重,尊敬
      • respective 分别的,各自的
      • respectable 值得尊敬的,体面的,得体的
      • respected 受到尊敬的
      • respectful 尊敬的,有礼貌的,恭敬的
      • respecting 关于(prep.)
  • sensible, sensitive, sentimental

    • sense (n) 感觉
      • sensible 理想的,明智的
      • sensitive 敏感的,善解人意的,灵敏的
    • sentiment (n) 感情,伤感
      • sentimental 情感那的,伤感的,多愁善感的
  • late, last, later, latter

    • late 晚的,迟的;晚期的,接近末期的 (late spring 晚春)
    • last 最后的,最末的;上一个的 (last week 上周)
    • later 较晚的 (比较级) / adv. 后来
    • latter 后者的 (former 前者)
  • sufficient, efficient, effective

    • sufficient 足够的,充分的 (物品)
    • efficient 有能力的,有效率的 (工作/学习等)
    • effective 有效的,起作用的 (药物)
    • effect (n) 效果

近义词词义辨析

  • average, normal, usual, general, ordinary, regular

    • average (水平等)平常的,平均的
    • normal (精神及身体状况等)正常的
    • usual 通常的,寻常的 (常指发生频率高的事) usually
    • general 大致的,全体的,普遍的
    • ordinary 普通的,平常的;平凡的;平淡无奇的
    • regular 有规律的;频繁的,定期的
  • silent, quiet, still, calm

    • silent (人) 不说话,沉默的;无声的,寂静的
    • quiet (环境) 宁静的,安静的
    • still 静止的,不动的,没有活力的
    • calm 镇定的,冷静的,沉着的 (人的心理活动)

副词

副词的构词法

  • 一般以-ly结尾为副词

    • eg: normally, hardly, usually, probably, willingly(乐意地), generally(普遍的), carefully , directly, clearly(清楚地), greatly(非常,极大地 = very)...
  • 特殊情况:一些以-ly结尾的可以用作形容词

    • friendly(友好的), deadly(致命的), lonely(孤独的), likely(可能的), lively(充满活力的), lovely(可爱的)...

副词的功能

  1. 修饰动词:此时副词通常置于动词之后

    • eg: He studies hard(adv).
  2. 修饰形容词:此时副词通常置于该形容词之前

    • eg:He is very kind(adv).
  3. 修饰副词:此时副词通常置于该副词之前

    • eg:He studies very(adv) diligently.
  4. 修饰全句:此时副词通常置于句首

    • eg:Fortunately(adv), he did not die.

enough 的用法

  • adj. 足够的,充足的

    • 用法:修饰名词,通常置于名词之前
    • eg: They have enough(adv) money to buy the tickets.
  • adv. 足够地,充分地,充足地

    • 用法:用于形容词、副词、动词之后 (enough 修饰 adj/adv 应后置)
    • eg: She is old(adj) enough to decide for herself.
  • adj + enough to do sth. 足够...做某事

    • This house isn't big enough for us.
    • He could'nt earn enough to support the family.

enough 在 名词前,形容词、副词动词后,如果是形容词,则是`adj + enough to do sth

too 的用法

  • too + adj/adv + to do ... 太...而不能...
    • He is too young to join the army.

so 和 such 的用法区别

  • so: (adv.) 表程度,含义为:如此

    • 用法:可以修饰形容词或副词:so + adj./adv.
    • 常用结构:so + adj. + a(n) + 可数名词单数
    • eg:
      • She is so beautiful.
      • She is so beautiful a girl.
  • 特殊用法:so + many/few/much/little + 名词

    • eg:
      • so many/few flowers (如此多/少的花)
      • so much/little money (如此多/少的钱)
  • such: (adj.) 表程度,含义为:如此的

    • 用法:修饰名词,结构为:such + n.
    • 常用结构如下:
      • such + a(n) + adj. + 可数名词单数(和such相比,a(n)是在adj.前面)
      • such + adj. + 可数名词复数
      • such + adj. + 不可数名词
    • eg:
      • such a hot day(这么热的一天)
      • such hot days(这种大热天)
      • such good weather(如此好的天气)

副词的词义辨析

  • every day 和 everyday
    • every day (adv) 每天
    • everyday (adj) 平常的,日常的

形容词、副词原级比较

  • 肯定式:as/so + adj./adv.的原级 + as

    • 含义:一方和...另一方一样...
    • eg:
      • Reba is as beautiful as Nazha.
      • This film is as interesting as that one.
  • 否定式:not as/so + adj./adv.的原级 + as (即在肯定式前面加not)

    • 含义:一方不及另一方...
    • eg:
      • Nazha is not as beautiful as Reba.
  • 注意

    • as ... as ... 句型中,两个as中间有名词,应用句型:
      • as + adj. + a(n) + 单数名词 + as ...
      • as many/much/few/little + 复数n/不可数n + as ...
      • eg:
        • She is as good a student as Mary.
  • 规则变化

    1. 比较级在词尾 + er ; 最高级在词尾 + est
      • eg:
        • tall - taller - tallest
        • hard - harder - hardest
        • clever - cleverer - cleverest
  1. 以字母 "e" 结尾的,在词尾加-r和-st

    • eg:
      • nice - nicer - nicest
      • fine - finer - finest
      • simple - simpler - simplest
      • large - larger - lagest
  2. 以辅音字母加 "y" 结尾的,变 y 为 i 再加 -er 和 -est

    • eg:
      • easy - easier - easiest
      • early - earlier - earliest
  3. 对于多音节和部分双音节词:词前加 more 表比较级,词前加 most 表最高级

    • eg:
      • important - more important - most important
      • famous - more famous - most famous
      • popular - more popular - most popular
      • careful - more careful - most careful
  • 不规则变化

    • many/much - more - most
    • good/well - better - best
    • bad/badly/ill - worse - worst
    • little - less - least
    • far - farther/further - farthest/furthest
      • eg:
        • I couldn't walk any farther/further.(距离远)
        • The police decide to investigate further(进一步). (抽象 只有further表)
  • old - older/elder - oldest/eldest

    • 年龄比较用 older, oldest
    • eg:
      • He is older than me.
    • 家庭中的长幼顺序用 elder,eldest
    • eg:
      • elder sister 长姐

形容词、副词比较级考点

  1. 比较级 + than
    • eg:
      • Mary works harder than Tom.
      • Health is more important than wealth.

much 可用来修饰比较级:much + 比较级

  1. `表达 "越来越..." 含义

    • 单音节词:比较级 + and + 比较级
    • 多音节词:more and more + adj/adv
    • eg:
      • bigger and bigger
      • more and more beautiful
  2. the + 比较级 + 主谓 ... , the + 比较级 +主谓 ...

    • eg:
      • The harder you work, the luckier you will be.
      • The higher you can see, the farther you can see.
  3. 可以放在比较级前修饰比较级的词:

    • 口诀:四个A甚至仍旧没有任何的马骑,怎么走的相当远
      • 四个A:a little, a bit, a lot, a great deal
      • 甚至:even
      • 仍旧:still
      • 任何:any
      • 马骑:many/much
      • 相当:rather, quite/fairly
      • 远:far
    • eg:
      • He is much taller than me.
  • 特殊情况:比较用原级,后用to

    • superior 高级的 (比...好,优于, be ~ to)
    • inferior 下等的 (比...差,劣于,be ~ to)
    • senior 年长的 (比...年纪大,be ~ to)
    • junior 年少的 (比....年少,be ~ to)
    • eg:
      • The computer is superior to that one.
  • 倍数表达法'

    • 倍数表达法一:
      • A + 谓语 + 倍数 +比较级 + than + B.
    • 倍数表达法二:
      • A + 谓语 + 倍数 + as + adj/adv 原级 + as + B.
    • 倍数表达法三:
      • A + 谓语 + 倍数 + the size/length/height/width... of + B. (表示A是B大/长/高/宽...)
    • once 一倍
    • twice 两倍
    • three times 三倍
    • X(倍数) times X倍(三倍数之上)
    • eg:
      • 杨的眼睛比孙的眼睛大三倍。 Yang's eyes are three times bigger than Sun's eyes.
      • 杨的眼睛是孙红雷眼睛的四倍。 Yang's eyes are four times as big as Sun's eyes.

形容词、副词最高级考点

  • 三个或三个以上的人或事物进行比较时:
    • 公式:主语 + 谓语 + the + adj/adv 最高级 + 比较的范围(大于等于3个)
    • eg:
      • YaoMing is the tallest in these people.

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